Monday, September 23, 2019

Legal issues in Hydraulic Fracturing Term Paper

Legal issues in Hydraulic Fracturing - Term Paper Example ation of conduits through which gas that comes from the original rocks get to move to the rocks that are non-porous and thus allowing the storage of this oil to get accessed later. In the process of Hydraulic Fractioning, one of the major aspects to observe is that water supplies may get exhausted and thus the importance of having the process in steps which is convenient to save on water. Steel surfaces are aligned along the water pipes in an effort to protect the natural water from being made impure. These steel surfaces are immersed to as deep as 4000 feet and for the least distance as 1000 feet for increased protection. From there, cement is poured into the space between the annulus which is the drilled hole and the casing. After the settling of the cement, there is then the drilling part which is done from below for precision and to get it to the next depth. This is done several times and each time that this is done there is the usage of narrower pipes that ensure that oil from as deep as 10000 feet is got to. There exists a rather large difference between oil and gas fractioning. Gas fractioning is a process that involves different procedures and it goes by the name Fracking. This method involves the removal of gas for extraction to exterior reservoirs. A wellbore from underneath is drilled to create more space for reserve. As opposed to this method, Oil fractioning involves the use of internal reservoirs and thus the process is short. Hydraulic Fractioning has existed in the United States for around the past 63 years. In the course of time, there have been complains concerning the levels of safety that this method of obtaining oil has. It was from there henceforth that the Federal Government sought to engage in debates on the issue and have ever existed. The Environmental Protection Agency has the responsibility of ensuring that citizens of the country are safe from different products that companies manufacture. The agency has over the years carried out

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Meaning of Life and Success Essay Example for Free

Meaning of Life and Success Essay The most important thing in my life is thought to be happiness. In order to achieve success you must adjust to very situation with ease. Success is it the process of doing a task and receiving a positive result, or is it simply achieving one’s own personal goals. According to The American Heritage dictionary success is, â€Å"the achievement of something desired, planned, or attempt†. The word success itself means to achieve your goal or get the point that you looking for. Some people success meant to them to be rich or to finish school and work high pay jobs. But for me success means more than that. Success means to me have peace and love; also to get married and to enter heaven after this life is over. To be sure, everybody who has peace and love is a successful succeeding person. Without peace and love there is no success. You wake up in the morning and you don’t worry about anything that day; that is success for me, because the life is short, you don’t have to be concerned about anything. Also if you have a family that loves you and is always happy for what you are doing, that is success. In addition, if you take care of your old parents and they love you and they live a happy life, which is success for me. Additionally, success is also something that is viewed differently in the eyes of everyone. This is because success means doing what I have always wanted do being where I have always wanted to be. My goal in life is to eventually get married to a good wife and have many happy children and if I accomplished that, then I could view myself as having success. Lastly, meaning of success for me is to enter the heaven after this life is over. We know that life in this world is too short, and we don’t know when we are going to die and what we are going to get after this life. That is a simple answer; do good deeds in this world and you are going to be successful in the life hereafter. That means you enter the heaven for sure and that is big reward from God to his mankind. There is no dying after this life; that means if you don’t enter the heaven you will be the loser and who ever go in the heaven will be the winner. In conclusion, I still agree with the idea I presented: however according to the dictionary and many other resources, success means to them achievement. But according to my own opinion success means to believe the ones of God, and to have peace and love in your whole life, and to get in heaven the life hereafter.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Story About DeGeneres Essay Example for Free

Story About DeGeneres Essay In 1958, DeGeneres was born in Metairie, Louisiana. She was born the daughter of an insurance salesmen named Elliot, and a working mother, Betty, who soon divorced when DeGeneres was a teenager (â€Å"Ellen DeGeneres†, U*X*L). After the divorce, Degeneres and her mother moved to Atlanta. There, DeGeneres found her mother getting sadder and sadder. So she turned to comedy in trying to cheer her mother up (â€Å"Ellen DeGeneres†, U*X*L). As DeGeneres grew older, she has waited tables, sold vacuum cleaners, worked as a legal secretary, and even painted houses (â€Å"Ellen DeGeneres†, Newsmakers. ) DeGeneres wanted to be a veterinarian, but she was â€Å"not book smart† (â€Å"Ellen DeGeneres†, U*X*L). In 1982, she took the stage for the first time at the local coffee shop (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen† 1958). Later that year, she entered Showtime’s Funniest Person In America contest, and won (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen† 1958). That helped start her career, but the real springboard into stardom was when she went on The Tonight Show, and Johnny Carson called her over to his couch. see more:essay about growing up She was the first women in history to be invited to sit on the famed couch on her first visit (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen† 1958). In 1994, she was offered her own sitcom by ABC, called These Friends of Mine, but for the second season, was renamed Ellen (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen† 1958). DeGeneres came out of the closet through her sitcom, and quickly became a leader and role model in the L.G.B.T community. Since Ellen went off the air, DeGeneres has been in multiple movies, and has even gotten her own syndicated, award winning talk show, The Ellen DeGeneres Show. But her real success is overcoming adversity, and achieving her dreams against all odds. One thing that really influenced DeGeneres’ American Dream is where she grew up, Louisiana. I rode my bike everywhere. All over the campus [of Newcomb College]. All over uptown. You know, people can grow up in New Orleans without realizing how unique a city it is. I remember thinking that it was a really neat place. ( "DeGeneres, Ellen†, UXL Newsmakers). She gives much credit to the fact that her mother raised her and her brother Vance single handedly in the city of New Orleans. Also, one of the first times DeGeneres got into comedy was after her parents divorce. My mother was going through  some really hard times and I could see when she was really getting down, and I would start to make fun of her dancing, DeGeneres remembered. Then shed start to laugh and Id make fun of her laughing. And shed laugh so hard shed start to cry, and then Id make fun of that (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen†, UXL Newsmakers). Now that DeGeneres has a â€Å"voice† that people will listen to, she strives to make the world a better place. At the end of every episode of her talk show, she says â€Å"Be kind to one another†. Also, she is an advocate for marriage equality, even though her and her wife, Portia De Rossi, are already married. And if anyone is trying to do anything to better the world we live in, Ellen likes to make them known, and tries to help them any way she can. Towards the end of the second season of the sitcom Ellen, DeGeneres cam out of the closet, both on the show, and in real life. It was widely rumored and talked about, she was the canter of a huge, nasty, media storm. When the episode finally aired, the â€Å"storm† only got bigger. She appeared on talk shows, and finally, on The Oprah Winfrey Show she told her reasoning for everything she had done. After that interview, her fans started to take sides. Some stayed by her side, while others grew adamantly against her and her actions. She was even dubbed â€Å"Ellen The Generate† While she has more fans then ever now, there are still some people who despise her (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen†, UXL Newsmakers). Another obstacle that hindered DeGeneres, is the facet that she never went to college. When you ask people what their definition of the American Dream is, a common theme is wanting to go to college. DeGeneres had that same dream at one point, but it never worked out. She had dreams to be a veterinarian, but she is quoted as saying that she is not â€Å"book smart† (â€Å"Ellen DeGeneres. U*X*L). In today’s society, it is the mindset of the people that without a college degree, you will be a nobody, a worthless bum on the streets. And that is what DeGeneres believed, until she entered the Funniest Person in America contest (â€Å"DeGeneres, Ellen 1958). From winning that contest, she got her chance on The Tonight Show. Then suddenly, the various little jobs were no more, and she was launched into stardom. And all of that is just another example of how DeGeneres overcame adversity, social stigmas, and all the odds to achieve her dreams, even if it wasn’t in the w ay she thought. DeGeneres has had her share of hatred thrown her way. But she has managed to endure all of it, and she is in a place to help people everyday, and he  seizes that opportunity. While we still do not have marriage equality in all 50 states, she is still pretty far along in achieving her American Dream. But she is always fighting, because in 1998, Degeneres was awarded the â€Å"Stephen F. Kolzak Award† by the â€Å"Gay and Lesbian Alliance against Defamation (GLAAD)† for being an open celebrity who battles homophobia (Pettigrew, Emily). And even though she never went to college, she is glad to help encourage the young minds of America. When DeGeneres gave the commencement speech at Tulane University, she said this, â€Å"When I was younger I thought Success was something different. I thought, â€Å"When I grow up, I want to be famous. I want to be a star. I want to be in movies. When I grow up I want to see the world, drive nice cars. I want to have groupies†. Bu t my idea of success is different today. For me, the most important thing in your life is to live your life with integrity and not to give into peer pressure, to try to be something that you’re not. To live your life as an honest and compassionate person. To contribute in some way† (Moncur).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Racial discrimination and colonization in literature

Racial discrimination and colonization in literature Frantz Fanon once wrote, â€Å"Colonialism hardly ever exploits the whole country. It contents itself with bringing to light the natural resources, which it extracts and exports to meet the needs of mother country’s industries, thereby allowing certain sectors of the colony to become relatively rich. But the rest of the colony follows its path of under development and poverty or at all events sinks into it more deeply.† The term â€Å"Postcolonialism† refers broadly to the ways in which race, ethnicity, culture, and human identity itself are represented in the modern era, after many colonized countries earned their independence. However, some critics use the term to refer to all culture and cultural products influenced by imperialism from the moment of colonization until today. A work by postcolonial writer attempts at describing the interactions between European nations and the people they colonized. A post colonial reading reveals the characters racism and dis criminatory attitude that drives their action. A post colonial prospective presents a discourse describing an attempt of assimilation of a black man into a white society. One of the major characteristics of the principle of human rights is the fact that each and every human being was born free with equal rights and dignity. Hounding and favoritism of human beings based on ethnicity and race are violations that are very clearly going against this fundamental principle. Discrimination based on race can assume several forms, from the institutional discrimination and severe discrimination to other forms that are covert whereby certain ethnic and racial groups are barred from enjoying similar cultural, political, civil, economic and social rights as other classes of people in the same society. Postcolonial literature is something that cannot be bound by time. Post colonial studies especially theories cannot be made obligatory. It must be properly disseminated and assimilated before it can ever begin to address the issue of the complex cultural investment. The postcolonial literature reveals the characters racism and discriminatory attitude that drives the ir action. It prevails since the time of Shakespeare. Postcolonial Shakespeare for most of the people, means a little evincing an interest in the moor but there are certain specific Shakespearean text that are thought to lend themselves to post colonial reading because of their obvious engagement with the colonial issues of racial and cultural otherness. Tempest and Othello have received this status of most favored text by Shakespeare of the postcolonial label. In Othello, the postcolonial perspective presents a discourse describing an attempt of assimilation of a black man into a while society by marrying a white woman but by the end of the play the protagonist is stripped off from his white construct and is reduced back to the traditional role of a â€Å"moor†. Similarly Shakespeare’s Tempest, is considered a central work in postcolonial theory. It is thought to be, by some critics as an early postcolonial work. Many colonial theorists and critics tend to focus on th e character of Caliban as their centre of discussion. According to the critics, Caliban has been tied to the west’s image of the native people often described as bizarre in their appearance. The natives according to the colonizers are dehumanized and are considered one with nature, similar to that of Caliban’s character in Shakespeare’s Tempest. His character is also easily fooled and intoxicated by the Europeans. Such is the way the colonizers perceive the natives. It is mentioned by theorist Edward Said that the colonizers always considered themselves superior and considered the natives as â€Å"the others†. Racial discrimination has been rampant for many centuries, post colonial literature mainly focuses upon this segment in their discussion. Not only were the Europeans dominating over the natives physically but they also worked at erasing their cultural identity and their past in order to implant their own cultural customs. Racial discrimination is a theme that runs throughout postcolonial discourse, as white Europeans consistently emphasized their superiority over darker-skinned people. This was most evident in South Africa, whose policy of apartheid was institutionalized in national laws. Nadine Gordimer’s novel My Son’s Story is a brilliant example of the trials and tribulations of racially discriminated people. In her novel, Gordimer presents how a black family struggles to survive in a white dominated society. One of the main attractions of the plot is the character of Sonny. It’s his desperation to be one of the white people that sets Gordimer’s story apart from the rest. The character of Sonny has an affair with a white woman Hannah. Through this affair the mere logic of Edward Said is proven, the fact that the white masses dominated over the natives by rearranging their ideology and setting it in such a way that it perceives the white people as their superior in every sense. By Sonny’s affair with Hannah and his obsession with Shakespeare it is proved that his ideology was programmed in such a way that his attraction towards Hannah and Shakespeare are hints of him wanting to be one of the white masses. Unlike Gordimer’s My Son’s Story, there are other novels regarding racial discrimination that present the natives as â€Å"the other† and set the white colonizers as people with superior intellect. Although ironically in each of these novel their lies a hint of destruction that is caused by this very superior intellectual group of people and it is the natives who are represented with humanity. One such work of art is Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, that represents the natives from the view point of the colonizers. Although it is debated whether Conrad wrote it as a criticism to the colonizers or the natives. Heart of Darkness truly is deserving of its title name. The darkness that is emphasized in the title not only talks about the darkness of the region but the darkness that exists in the heart of the colonizers. The novel depicts some soul shattering images of the natives being tortured and chained by the colonizers. The novel beautifully narrates th e plight of the natives and depicts how the colonizers viewed them. Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart is another exemplary example of colonial racial discrimination. Achebe’s novel emphasizes Edward Said’s Orientalist theories, about how the colonizers dominated over the natives by implanting the colonial ideological thinking into the natives. The plot depicts how the natives are made to give up their own culture and customs and follow the colonial way of living. Achebe depicts in his novel how the things fall apart for the natives and their colony, how the natives are driven away from their own sense of identity and individuality. The concept of losing one’s identity has also been taken up by Derek Walcott in his poem The Sea is History. His poem talks about how the natives are clueless about their history, their roots and their identity. The poem depicts the native’s plight of not knowing their past and thus being unaware of their sense of identity. Discrimination was mainly done on the basis of colour, and one of the ways to dominate over the natives was to erase their sense of identity by dominating over their ideology. Since many of the natives culture was in form of orator and not written, it was fairly easy for the colonizers to establish their upper hand over the natives. Some other works that depicts racial discrimination are Coetzee’s novels Waiting for the Barbarians (1982), which is set in an imaginary empire not unlike South Africa, utilizes postmodern strategies and tactics to foreground their status as works of fiction, while at the same time suggesting a political posture t owards a real place and policy, which is, South African apartheid. Also, Salman Rushdie’s novel Midnight’s Children(1981), Michael Ondaatje’s novel The English Patient (1992), Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth (1961), Jamaica Kincaid’s A Small Place (1988), Isabelle Allende’s The House of the Spirits (1982), J. M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Disgrace (1990), Derek Walcott’s Omeros (1990), and Eavan Boland’s Outside History. Two essays that are worth mentioning in this particular genre are: Frantz Fanon’s Black Skin. White Masks and Ngugi Wa Thiongo’s Decolonising the mind. â€Å"When people like me, they like me in spite of my colour. When they dislike me; they point out that it isnt because of my colour. Either way, I am locked into the infernal circle.† This line of Frantz Fanon, a French psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and writer, speaks about how he has been victimized by the same hard blow of hatred by white people. He believed that there is a paralytic judiciary system of whites towards the black. Franz Fanon gives utmost importance to the phenomenon of language. He said, â€Å"White men always claim to posses all knowledge of the world and believe in hallucinating black, because of their own means.† In his book Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon talks about how black race faces the lack of judgment in society and is always abolished out of societal virtues (Fanon, 1967 ). In another book on Colour Prejudice, he begins with the duality in the behavior of a black man towards a white man and towards another black man. His opposition towards such discrimination and racist factor was so strong that it compelled other revolutionaries to take a stand against such injustice firmly. Perceptions as far as the minorities are concerned, which specify that they are weak and inferior are usually planted in the minds of people from the majority group in their early stages of development. The minority group of people, in other words, the racially discriminated people are made to believe such perceptions by their parents, teachers and the society in which they grow in.Racism involves a set of actions or beliefs that considers an individual or a class of people to be inferior as compared to another individual or a class of people, due to their appearance physically, such as their skin color. These are perceptions that are fed in the minds of people and they usually have a lot of negative impacts on the individuals or group of people being considered to be inferior. One of the ways through which, ill-treatment and narrow mindedness against the minority can be eliminated is by reversing such unfounded perceptions. This can be done through increased awareness that all peop le are the same and those simple differences such as height or skin color cannot be adequate reasons for treating some people as less equals as the others and thus oppressed and exploited. The individuals that are racists are simply the product of a society that sponsors and encourages the vice in one way or another. In order to change such a society, there is need for both political and legal change to be shadowed. Politically, the interests of the minority should be well addressed and this can be done through increasing the political representation of the groups facing discrimination. Laws that are aimed at protecting the rights of the minority should be enacted so that anyone violating these rights is to be dealt with severe punishment. The minorities themselves have also a role to play in ending prejudice and discrimination against them. They should ensure that they are in the forefront in the campaign against oppression, prejudice and discrimination along racial lines. As African Americans place in today’s new age society has changed over the centuries and along with it so has the focus of African-American literature. Before theAmerican Civil War, the literature primarily consisted of memoirs by people who had escaped from slavery; the genre ofslave narrativescomprised accounts of life in slavery and the path of justice and redemption to freedom. There was an early peculiarity between the literature of freed slaves and the literature of free blacks who had been born in the North. Free blacks had to express their oppression in a dissimilar narrative form. Free blacks in the North often spoke out against slavery and racial injustices using the spiritual narrative. The spiritual addressed many of the same themes of slave narratives, but has been largely ignored in current scholarly conversation. At the turn of the 20th century, non-fiction works by authors such as  W. E. B. Du Bois  and  Booker T. Washington  debated whether to confron t or appease racist attitudes in the United States. During the  American Civil Rights movement, authors such as  Richard Wright  and  Gwendolyn Brooks  wrote about issues of  racial segregation  and  black nationalism. Today, African-American literature has become recognized as an integral part of  American literature, with books such as  Roots: The Saga of an American Family  by  Alex Haley,  The Color Purple(1982) by  Alice Walker, which won the  Pulitzer Prize; and  Beloved  by Toni Morrison achieving both best-selling and award-winning status. Bernice McFadden quoted, â€Å"Dont you know sugar is brown first? White folks couldnt stand the fact that something so sweet shared the same color as the people who cut the cane, slopped the hogs and picked the cotton. So they bleached it to resemble them, and now they have gone and fooled everybody. You included.† Decolonizing a person’s mind is quite difficult to do because it cannot be done. Once the natives have been colonized for certain time period the colonizers history merges with that of the natives. Aijaz Ahmed in his essay wrote that when India was colonized by the British, their language that they shared with the natives became a part of the Indian culture and if the natives wish to ignore that culture in order to decolonize their minds, they are unintentionally discarding a part of their own culture. Doing so, will not accomplish anything and it will only end up fogging the sense of identity in the natives. According to Ngugi Wa Thiongo, in his essay Deco lonizing the mind he writes that, The oppressed and the downtrodden of the earth preserve their rebelliousness: liberty from robbery. However the prevalent weapon wielded and actually daily set free by the imperialism against that combined disobedience is the cultural attack. The effect of a cultural bomb is to destroy people’s faith in their religion, in their speech, in their surroundings, in their inheritance of great efforts , in their harmony, in their capability and eventually in themselves. It makes them want to recognize with that which is furthest detached from themselves; for example, with other peoples’ languages other than their own. It makes them categorize with that which is immoral and backward-looking, all those forces which would end their own life. It even grows chain of doubts about the ethical aptness of struggle. Possibilities of success or conquest are seen as unreachable, unreasonable dreams. The intended results are despair, hopelessness and a c ollective death wish. Amidst this wasteland which it has created, imperialism presents itself as the restore to health and demands that the dependant sing hymns of praise with the regular refrain: ‘theft is holy’. Indeed, this refrain sums up the new statement of belief of the neo colonial bourgeoisie in many independent African states. The classes fighting against imperialism even in its neo-colonial stage and form and have to tackle this threat with the higher and more creative culture of unyielding struggle. These classes have to wield even more firmly the weapons of the struggle contained in their cultures. They have to speak the united language of struggle enclosed in each of their languages. They must discover their various tongues to sing the song: A people united can never be defeated. We have a black president in U.S now , but does it mean that we are witnessing a post racial America ? The answer is no. Present day America is more racially polarized .Racial violence is on the rise. Black people can never realize their potential and goals, unless the thinking of White colonizers is reconceptualized and perceived afresh by which I mean a change in the way the White people perceive their identity vis a vis their country .This reconceptualization is something which Baldwin tries to do in The Fire Next Time. He stresses the importance of mediating one’s own identity and necessity to move away from white mediums of representation. He aims at flipping the power equations and to invert the hierarchies. Going by this vision, it is the white man who is in shackles (trapped in history), who needs to be free for the black people to be free (Baldwin, 1963 ) . Though he is offering a paradigm shift in the sense that he is offering a conception of White men in nonwhite terms, yet he does not do away with the entire idea of the white and the black. White colonizers need to stop seeing each other through the lens of race/colour but as equals.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Human Resource Leadership - Worker Retention Programs Essay -- essays

Human Resources Leadership (Team 4)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Worker Retentions Program Waiwah Ellison Norma Gladhill Daniel Lewis Rachel Luce Angelica Player Lori Ruskey Abstract All organizations want to see an increase in productivity and a positive impact on the bottom line. Successful organizations realize employee retention and talent management is integral to sustaining their leadership and growth in the market place. The focus of this group project is on worker retention strategies. Worker retention strategies are programs designed to preserve existing quality workers by providing benefits and incentives. These benefits and incentives are provided to employees in various ways. Our group chose to explore six organizations in three different industries. These industries include Retail, Package shipping, and Airlines. Through research and investigation of three major industries we were able to develop a comparison of how these major organizations retain quality workers. First, we explore and learn how to keep people motivate to stop turnover within an organization. Secondly, we investigate employer’s benefits and incentive programs to keep quality employees. Finally, we examine workforce motivation and the engagement to commitment as organizations continually change initiatives and strategic planning. TARGET VS. WALMART Target and Wal-Mart have many similarities on their retention programs. Despite the difference in the size of their companies, they are both large enough to allow their employees to switch career paths within their own organization. Wal-Mart offers its employees different opportunities in many diverse department of the huge operation. They are retail, real estate, public policy, merchandising, logistics, IT, marketing, and advertising. Target offers similar areas of careers within the organization. Many other motivation tools are used for both Target and Wal-Mart to keep their employees happily employed. Merit increases in pay based on company performance are used almost the exact same way in both companies. They both have annual increase that depends on individual performance and company performance. Target gives its employees 25 cents per hour raise after 90 days in order to keep new employees. Holiday bonuses are offered to all Wal-Mart employees who have been with the company over one year. Gifts and ... ...e: hire only those who fit perfectly, offer great benefits, and perks. SWA has created an atmosphere that demonstrates appreciation for the employees, and has made Southwest Airlines an organization of which people are proud to be a part. Conclusion Employee retention strategies help organizations. They provide effective employee communication to improve commitment and enhance workforce support for key organization initiatives. Retention strategies build customer loyalty by distinguishing and positioning an organization’s unique products and services in today’s crowded marketplace. Economic growth and employee turnover is one of the most critical issue facing corporate leaders today. As a result there is a shortage of skilled workers. We have explored several aspects of the workforce stability. The employee retention issue continues in the face of unprecedented churning in the employment market. Human Resource Managers are provided with a wide range of tools to control employee turnover. Workforce stability can be a HR Manager’s competitive advantage in these turbulent times. This is one of the hottest topics for corporate leaders in all fields in the United States and globally.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

White-Collar Crime Essay -- Crime

Businesses are vulnerable to a variety of internal and external crime that affects an organization’s performance. White-collar crime is a problem affecting businesses in the U.S. and around the world, costing billions of dollars in lost revenue every year. This paper will identify the types of employee crimes focusing on theft and the perpetrators; examine the impact to businesses and explore how business can deal with these offenses. Mr. Smith places some extra highlighters and colored paper in his briefcase from the office’s supply closet for young Billy to use on his school project. Joanne has returned to her desk a 15 minutes late from her lunch break and is now surfing the web for airfare while on the phone long distance with her ailing grandmother to discuss plans to see her next month. Leonard supplements his hourly wage from working nights at the gas station by sneaking a couple scratch-off lottery tickets off the roll when the owner isn’t around. Mrs. Sara Swindle has been defrauding union members by diverting dues for her own use. Some of these examples may not necessarily be prosecuted or even discovered but nonetheless are examples of employee theft or white-collar crime. Businesses face a myriad of internal threats for their success; the focus for this paper is theft; including theft of cash, inventory and equipment. Other types of employee crime include: writing company checks, money laundering, processing fraudulent invoices, payroll fraud, falsifying revenue reports, customer identity theft, intellectual property theft, overstated expense reports and credit card fraud (Bressler, 2011). Long before credit card fraud and identity theft, business owners dealt with theft. There is a no more clear exampl... ...activity and its impact on business. The Entrepreneurial Executive, 16, 49-61. Retrieved from Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., Naffziger, D. W., & Hodgetts, R. M. (2000). Crime and Small Business: An Exploratory Study of Cost and Prevention Issues in U.S. Firms. Journal Of Small Business Management, 38(3), 1-13. Retrieved from Larson, E. (1985, January 14). Crook's tool: Computers turn out to be valuable aid in employee crime --- machines facilitate stealing, extortion and sabotage; west coast's robin hood --- you don't trust anybody. The Wall Street Journal, p. 1. Retrieved from

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Exploring The Evolution Of Environmental Management Environmental Sciences Essay

Human being has accumulated environmental cognition and developed schemes for working nature. To modulate and prolong resource people use often-evolved tabu, superstitious notions and common rights, formulated Torahs to better stewardship, and for centuries some have undertaken resource stock lists. Developments evident in the late 20th century make it critical that environmental direction is got right ; these include human population growing ; planetary pollution ; loss of biodiversity ; soil debasement ; and urban growing. The challenges are great, but at that place have been progresss in understanding the construction and map of the environment, in monitoring impacts, informations handling and analysis, mold, appraisal, and planning. Environmental direction must organize and concentrate developments, to better human wellbeing, and seek to extenuate or forestall farther harm to the Earth and its beings. There are a broad scope of organic structures and professionals involved in environmental direction: authorities bureaus, international organic structures and assistance organisations ( UNEP, USAID ) and research institutes. Below are factors that motivates environmental direction: †¢ Matter-of-fact grounds – fright or common sense makes people or decision makers seek to avoid a job. †¢ Desire to salvage costs – it may be better to avoid jobs or counter them than endure the effects: pollution, species extinction, human deceases, dearly-won judicial proceeding, There may besides be advantages in waste recovery, energy preservation and keeping environmental quality. †¢ Compliance – persons, local authorities, companies, provinces and so on may be required by Torahs, national or international understanding to care for the environment. †¢ Shift in moralss – research, the media, persons or groups of militants may trip new attitudes, understandings or Torahs. †¢ Macro-economics – publicity of environmental direction may take to economic enlargement: a market for pollution control equipment, usage of cured waste, more secure and efficient energy and natural stuffs supply ; or there may be advantages in ‘internalizing outwardnesss ‘ . Most environmental directors would accept that sustainable development is one of their cardinal ends. Sustainable development is about bettering the batch of people and avoiding environmental debasement. This demands high-quality direction of the environment and human establishments, and the ability to acknowledge and avoid, extenuate or accommodate to socio-economic and physical menaces The inquiry is whether sustainable development is traveling to move merely as a steering rule or whether it can bring forth practical feasible schemes that improve human wellbeing and prevent environmental debasement. Some of developments have helped to set up environmental direction: In an increasing figure of states the populace have become environmentally cognizant and unwilling to swear authorities and corporations to protect the environment. This has mostly grown out of their witnessing accidents, abuse of resources, and from concern about ecological menaces. International bureaus, concerns and authoritiess have started to prosecute environmental direction ( NGOs, UNEP, EPA ) The media proctor and study on environmental issues. International conferences, understandings and declarations have publicized issues and supported environmental direction. The development of environmentalism and green political relations. Broadly, the chief rules of environmental direction are prudence and stewardship. These are pursued via: Advanced, broad-view policy devising and planning ( chiefly left to assorted contrivers to set about ) Establishing criterions and regulations, monitoring and scrutinizing Co-ordination ( the environmental director following a multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or holistic attack ) Operational/implementation. Some dismiss much of contemporary environmental direction as ‘environmental managerialism ‘ which pays deficient attending to human-environment interaction, has become institutionalized, and is basically a state-cantered procedure concerned with formulating and implementing Torahs, policies and ordinances which relate to the environment. Some people are sufficiently cognizant of pollution, soilrosion, over-fishing, loss of woods and other alterations in their physical milieus, and are prepared to voice concern. Environmental direction activities are frequently prompted by such people, by those monitoring developments, and besides by historiographers, archeologists, geologists and others interested in human-environment interactions and environmental alteration. Recently, the focal point has been more on how worlds affect the environment instead than on how environment affects worlds, which is unwise.The nature of environmental directionDevelopment direction has evolved ind ependently of environmental direction, but normally convergences. Development direction is basically the use of intercessions aimed at advancing development. Adopting a theatrical analogy – it has mostly been as if merely the histrions were involved, and the theater, illuming and phase attracted small concern. Peoples often resist altering environmentally detrimental life styles, or paying more for necessities or even luxury points, or through poorness is unable to make so. Many authorities and concerns have truly embraced environmental concern ; nevertheless, some are uneffective, some highjack environmental concern for their ain terminals, and other ignore environmental issues for ‘ strategic ‘ grounds. Societies, administration and jurisprudence have to germinate to back up environmental direction. Some optimistic prognosiss assume progress towards less detrimental wonts will be equal ; others are more pessimistic and, possibly realistically, think it is likely there will be ‘business-as-usual ‘ scenarios. Those seeking to pull off the environment therefore have many challenges.The procedure and ends of environmental directionEnvironmental directors make deliberate attempts to maneuver the development procedure to take advantage of chances, seek to avoid jeopardies, mitigate jobs, and prepare people for ineluctable troubles by bettering adaptability and resiliency. Environmental direction is still a comparatively immature subject, so judging how successful it has been and in what ways it should be ‘tuned ‘ to better function the quest for development is hard. Humankind has besides increased in Numberss far beyond anything in the yesteryear, which with other developments likely makes us more vulnerable than our ascendants. One cardinal undertaking of environmental direction is to cut down human exposure and better adaptability. Environmental direction seeks to better environmental stewardship by incorporating ecolog y, policy devising, planning and societal development, and whatever else is needed. Its ends include: Prolonging and, if possible, bettering bing resources The bar and declaration of environmental jobs Establishing bounds Establishing and fostering establishments that efficaciously support environmental research, monitoring and direction Warning of menaces and placing chances Where possible bettering ‘quality of life ‘ Identifying new engineering or policies that are utile.Approachs to environmental directionThere may be some convergence between groupings and within classs. Environmental directors may be more or less anthropocentric or ecocentric, more or less ‘green ‘ , more or less supportive of engineering. There is besides a broad spectrum of political and philosophical stances, all of which colour the attack adopted. 1 Ad hoc attack: attack developed in reaction to a specific state of affairs. 2 Problem-solving attack: follows a series of logical stairss to place jobs and demands and to implement solutions. 3 Systems attack: for illustration, Ecosystem ( mountain, high latitude, savanna, desert, island, lake ) Agro-ecosystem 4 Regional attack: chiefly ecological zones or biogeophysical units, which may sometimes be international ( Le. affect different provinces, e.g. an internationally shared river basin ) . For illustration, Watershed River basin Coastal zonet Island Command country development authorization ( irrigation-related ) Administrative part Sea ( Mediterranean, North Sea, Baltic, AmI Sea ) 5 Specialist subject attack, frequently adopted by professionals. For illustration: Air quality direction Water quality direction Land direction Environmental wellness Urban direction Ocean direction Human ecology attack Tourism management/ecotourism Conservation country direction. 6 Strategic environmental direction attack 7 Voluntary sector attack: environmental direction by, or encouraged and supported by, NGOs. For illustration: Debt-for-nature barters Private militias Ginger Groups which try to motivate environmental direction Private support for research or environmental direction. 8 Commercial attack: environmental direction for business/public organic structures. 9 Political economic system or political ecology attack 10 Human ecology attackSustainable developmentA end of sustainable development may be used to assist incorporate diverse involvements that would likely non otherwise co-operate. Even if it is achieved in merely a limited manner, it may however turn out to be a valuable ‘guiderail for development ‘ . There are analogues with Judgess seeking justness, citizens desiring autonomy, and philosophers and scientists prosecuting truth- the end may be elusive but attempts to make it hold to be maintained. There are a immense figure of definitions of sustainable development. It is many things: a end, a paradigm displacement, above all hard to accomplish and frequently complex. A definition, which has become good known, is: ‘to run into the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ‘ ( World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 ) . Most definitions stress inter-generational equity ( go throughing to future coevalss every bit much as the present enjoys ) and intra-generational equity ( sharing what there is between all groups ) .Drumhead†¢ Environmental direction is germinating and distributing. It has still to be adequately adapted to accommodate all conditions, and will go on to hold to be improved. †¢ Environmental direction demands a proactive attack to development and must incorporate closely with other subjects. †¢ Without proactive environmental direction, development is improbable to be sustainable and people will be more vulnerable to catastrophes. †¢ The universe and its resources are n't infinite, and human demands continue to increase. The ultimate end of environmental direction is to turn to this issue and to seek sustainable development. †¢ Modem worlds are more legion than at any point in the yesteryear and are less adaptable. †¢ Environmental direction has many tools to take from. These are frequently still germinating and may non be tuned to non-Western state demands and new challenges. Environmental directors have to choose suited schemes and tools best suited for a given state of affairs. †¢ A proactive attack is wise if sustainable development is a serious end, and because worlds appear to be more vulnerable than many admit.